ibn Rajab al-Hanbali Left Issuing Fatawa in Accordance to ibn Taymiyya and was Loathed by the Taymiyyun

The student of ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (who in turn was the student of ibn Taymiyya) – al-Imam al-Hafidh ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d.795AH), stopped issuing fatawa in accordance to the views of ibn Taymiyya and was loathed by the Taymiyyun because of it:

al-Hafidh Zayn al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Rajab al-Hanbali al-Baghdadi – then al-Dimashqi. The son of Rajab, born in Baghdad in the year 736 (AH).

In Egypt he heard from al-Maydumi, in Cairo from ibn al-Muluk, in Damascus from ibn al-Khubbaz, as well as the addition of numerous others. He kept the company of our Shaykh, Zayn al-Din al-‘Iraqi in hearing (from him) a great deal. He was proficient in the disciplines of hadith – the names (asma’), the narrators (rijal), hidden defects (‘ilal), the different routes/chains (turuq), and insight in explaining (itla’) their meanings.

He authored “Sharh al-Tirmidhi” in around twenty volumes, regarding which he achieved excellent results, (he also authored) a commentary of a major portion of (Sahih) “al-Bukhari”, as well as a commentary of “al-Arba’in li al-Nawawi” (Imam al-Nawawi’s collection of fourty ahadith) in one volume. He worked on “Wadha’if al-Ayyam” (the recommended actions of each specific day) which he named “al-Lata’if”, and also worked on “Tabaqat al-Hanabila” (the ranks of the Hanbali scholars) as a follow up of “Tabaqat Abi Ya’la”.

He was a man devoted to worship and tahajjud. He was resented because of his deliverance of religious legal edicts (ifta’) based on the sayings of ibn Taymiyya. He then proclaimed retraction from that and the Taymiyyun loathed him, so he was neither (aligned) with this group, not that group. In the end, he abandoned issuing religious legal edicts (ifta’).

Ibn Hajji said: “He mastered the science (of hadith and it’s branches) and became the most recognised of the people of his time in the field of hidden defects (‘ilal) and the pursuit of the different chains of transmission (tatabbu’ al-turuq). He would not intermingle with anyone and would also rarely visit anyone.”

He passed away during the month of Ramadhan, may Allah have mercy upon him. Most of our Hanbali companions were trained/educated by him in Damascus.

[ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Inba al-Ghumr bi Anba al-‘Umr, ed. al-Majlis al-A’la li al-Shu’un al-Islamiyya 1969:1998, pt. 1, pg. 460-461]

عبد الرحمن بن أحمد بن رجب البغدادي ثم الدمشقي الحنبلي، الحافظ زين الدين بن رجب. وُلد ببغداد سنة ستٍ وثلاثين وسبعمائة، وسمع بمصر من الميدومي وبالقاهرة من ابن الملوك وبدمشق من ابن الخباز وجمع جمٍّ، ورافق شيخنا زين الدين العراقي في السماع كثيرًا، ومهر في فنون الحديث أَسماءً ورجالًا وعِللًا وطرقا واطلاعًا على معانيه.
صنَّف “شرح الترمذي” فأَجاد فيه في نحو عشرين مجلدة، وشرح قطعة كبيرة من “البخاري” وشرح “الأَربعين للنووي” في مجلدة، وعمل “وظائف الأَيام” سمَّاه “اللطائف” وعمل “طبقات الحنابلة” ذيلًا على “طبقات أبي يعلى”.
وكان صاحبَ عبادَةٍ وتهجد، ونُقِم عليه إِفتاؤه بمقالات ابن تيمية ثم أَظهر الرجوع عن ذلك فنافره التيميون فلم يكن مع هؤلاءِ ولا مع هؤلاءِ، وكان قد ترك الإِفتاءَ بآخره.
قال ابن حجي: “أَتْقَنَ الفنَّ وصار أَعرف أَهل عصره بالعلل وتتبُّع الطرق، وكان لا يخالط أَحدًا ولا يتردد إِلى أَحد”. مات في رمضان رحمه اللّٰه، [و]تخرج به غالب أَصحابنا الحنابلة بدمشق.

– ابن حجر العسقلاني في كتابه “إنباء الغمر بأنباء العمر”، المجلس الأعلى للشئون الإسلامية ١٩٩٨:١٩٦٩، الجزء الاول، ص. ٤٦٠-٤٦١


Taqi al-Din al-Subki on ibn Taymiyya’s Belief of Hell Being Non-eternal

Shaykh al-Islam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (D. 756AH) on ibn Taymiyya’s book on hell being non-eternal:

The faith of Muslims, is that paradise and hell do not perish, Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm having transmitted scholarly consensus (ijma’) on this point and on the fact that whoever denies it is an unbeliever (kafir) by scholarly consensus. And there is no doubt of this, for it is necessarily known (necessarily known meaning things that any Muslim would know about if asked) as part of the religion of Islam, and proof after proof bears it out. Allah Most High says:

(1) “Nay, but whoever earns a wicked deed and is encompassed by his error, those are the inhabitants of hell, abiding therein forever” [Quran, 2:81]

(2) “Verily those who disbelieve and die as unbelievers; the curse of Allah, the angels, and people, one and all, is upon them, abiding therein forever; the torment torment shall not be lightened from them, not shall they be respited” [Quran, 2:161-162]

(3) “Whoever of you leaves his religion and dies as an unbeliever, those are they whose works have failed in this world and the next, and those are the inhabitants of hell, abiding therein forever” [Quran, 2:217]

(4) “Those who disbelieve, their friends are the evil ones, who lead them from the light to darkness. Those are the dwellers of hell, abiding in it forever” [Quran, 2:257]

(n: There follow some fifty-six Quranic verses of similar purport which have been left untranslated for the sake of brevity:

2:162, 3:116, 4:14, 4:93, 4:168-69, 6:128, 7:36, 9:63, 9:68, 10:27, 11:106-7, 13:5, 16:29, 21:99, 23:103, 32:14, 25:69, 33:64-65, 39:72, 41:28, 43:74-75, 47:15, 59:17, 64:10, 72:23, 98:6, 2:86, 32:20, 2:167, 2:102, 3:22, 4:56, 4:121, 5:37, 11:8, 11:16, 14:21, 14:29, 23:108, 29:23, 45:35, 22:22, 35:36, 17:97, 40:49-50, 42:45, 69:36, 78:30, 87:13, 90:20, 82:16.)

….The other verses that mean the same thing are very many, a fact that eliminates the possibility of explaining them away figuratively and necessitates complete conviction of them; just as the verses proving bodily resurrection, because of their great numbers, eliminate any possibility of explaining them away figuratively. We adjudge whoever explains these verses as if they were figurative to have committed unbelief because of the knowledge which the evidence en masse affords. And so it is too with the very numerous and intersubstantiative hadiths about this, such as the Prophet’s saying (Allah bless him and give him peace):

(1) “Whoever kills himself with a knife will abide in the fire of hell, perpetually stabbing his belly with it, undying therein forever. And whoever hurls himself from a mountain and kills himself shall abide in the fire of hell, perpetually falling to his death, undying therein forever.”

(2) “As for the inhabitants of hell who are its people, they shall be undying therein and unliving.”

(3) “When the people of paradise go to paradise and the people of hell go to hell, Death shall be brought forward, placed between paradise and hell, and slaughtered. And a crier shall be heard ‘O people of paradise, there is no death; O people of hell, there is no death!'”

And there is the like of the above evidence concerning paradise, as Allah Most High says:

(1) “Those who believe and do good works, they are the dwellers of paradise, abiding therein forever” [Quran, 2:82]

(2) “Whoever obeys Allah and his messenger, He will admit them into gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein forever. That is the mighty triumph” [Quran, 4:13]

(n: Thirty-eight verses of similar purport follow, which have been left untranslated, as before, for brevity:

2:82, 3:15, 10:62, 3:198, 4:13, 4:57, 5:85, 5:119, 9:89, 9:100, 11:23, 10:26, 11:108, 13:35, 14:23, 15:48, 18:3, 18:107, 20:76, 21:102, 23:11, 25:15, 25:76, 29:58, 4:122, 39:73, 41:8, 43:71, 41:30, 48:5, 56:17, 57:12, 58:22, 50:34, 64:9, 65:11, 95:6, 98:8.)

….So these are the verses we can recall about the eternality of paradise and hell. We have mentioned hell first because we have come across a work about hell perishing by one of the people of the present era. We have quoted about one hundred Quranic verses, approximately sixty concerning hell, and forty on paradise. Immortality (khuld) or words derived from it are found in thirty-four of those dealing with hell and thirty eight of those about paradise. Everlastingness (ta’bid) has been mentioned in conjunction with immortality in four of those dealing with hell, and mentioned eight times about paradise, seven of them in connection with immortality. Never leaving and so forth has been plainly stated in over thirty verses. The consequence of the concatenate and intersubstantiative character of these and similar verses is absolute certainty that what Allah Most High thereby intends is their literal meaning and significance. It is not something in which the outward sense might be used to imply other than the plain purport, which is why Muslims unanimously concur upon faith in it, descendants having taken it from ancestors in unbroken succession from their Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). It is integrally embedded in the innate faith (fitra) of the Muslims, necessarily known as part of the religion of Islam, and even held by all non-Muslim sects. Whoever denies it is an unbeliever (kafir), and whoever explains it away figuratively is he same as someone who figuratively explains away Quranic verses about the bodily resurrection, meaning that he too is an unbeliever, because knowing the verses necessitates belief.
I have come upon the above-mentioned work, whose author mentions three positions about paradise and hell perishing: that both end, which he declares none of the early Muslims have said; that neither ends; and that paradise remains but hell ends; the latter of which he inclines toward and adopts, saying that is the position of the early Muslims (salaf). Allah be our refuge from this! I exonerate the early Muslims from it and do not believe a single one of them said it. There are only some words that have been ascribed to certain individuals of them that are to be taken as all problematic utterances are, meaning they are construed and interpreted in light of other than their ostensive sense, for just as there occur expressions requiring such exegesis in Quranic verses and hadiths, so too words occur in the discourse of scholars that must be fittingly explained. Whoever takes words of early Muslims that were spoken to motivate people to do good or be afraid of doing evil and so forth, and interprets them literally, recording them as if they were a “school of thought” has misled himself and others. Nor is this scholarship, for the way of the scholars is to uncover the meaning of words and what is intended by them. When we are certain that what has been ascribed to a speaker is his actual position on a matter and his belief, we attribute it to him. But unless we are certain, we do not attribute it to him, this being especially true of basic tenets of Islamic belief like the above, about which Muslims unanimously agree on one position. How can one proceed to the opposite of what they believe and then attribute it to the greatest of Muslims and exemplars of believers, considering it a topic of scholarly disagreement as if it were a question about ablution (wudu)? How remote whoever does this is from knowledge and from guidance! This is a reprehensible innovation (bid’a) of the most ominous and ugliest sort, and Allah has knowingly led whoever says it astray….
(n: several pages follow, examining various objections to the eternality of hell raised by the above-mentioned author, some of them citing statements ascribed to early Muslims, which, as Subki points out, apply to disobedient Muslims who will one day leave the hellfire, not to unbelievers, polytheists, or the likes of Pharaoh and Satan. Only a few of these objections could be translated below because of their length.)
(Objection:) There is a hadith in the Musnad of Ahmad that herbiage will one day grow on the floor of hell.
(Reply:) It is not in the Musnad of Ahmad, but in others, and is a weak hadith. If it were rigorously authenticated (sahih), it would be interpreted as referring to the level where disobedient Muslims (‘usat) are.
(Objection:) Harb Kirmani said, “I asked Ishaq about the word of Allah Most High,

“‘…except as your Lord wills’ [Quran, 11:107],

“and he replied, ‘This verse applies to every threat of punishment in the Quran.'” And it is related from Abu Nadra that one of the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “This verse applies to the entire Quran wherever the words ‘Abiding therein forever’ are mentioned.”
(Reply:) If authenticated, these statements are interpreted as applying to disobedient Muslims, for the departure of Muslim sinners from hell is not explicitly stated in the Quran, but only in the sunna, and is through intercession. So the meaning of these statements is to show the agreement between the Quran and sunna on this, for the early Muslims had great fear, and did not find in the Quran that true monotheists would leave hell, and were afraid of unending punishment.
(Objection:) Allah has informed us that His mercy encompasses everything [Quran, 7:156], and has said, “My mercy has outstripped My wrath” [Sahih al-Bukhari, 9.411], while if one hypothesizes an unending torment, there is no mercy at all.
(Reply:) The hereafter is of two abodes, an abode of mercy unmixed with anything else, which is paradise; and an abode of torment unmixed with anything else, which is hell; this being a proof of Allah’s omnipotence, while the present life is compounded of both. So if by saying “If one hypothesizes an unending torment, there is no mercy at all,” one means to absolutely deny that there is any mercy, it is not true, for there is the very perfection of mercy in paradise; while if one means there is no mercy in hell, we reply that even if one holds that mercy and torment are things, Allah Most High says (n: in the remainder of the verse “My mercy encompasses everything”),

“I shall inscribe it for those who are godfearing” [Quran, 7:156].

(Objection:) It is established that Allah is all-wise and all-compassionate, and that wicked souls (who, if they were returned to this world, would go back to their wrongdoing) are unfit to dwell in the abode of peace. Now, if given a torment that would purge their souls of this evil, it would be tenable with respect to the divine wisdom, but as for creating souls who do evil in this world and for whom there is nothing but torment in the next, this is a contradiction than which few things are more inconsistent with wisdom and mercy. This is why Jahm denied that Allah is the Most Merciful of the Merciful, but rather said that He does whatever He wills, and those who follow Jahm’s path, like Ash’ari and others, do not hold that He actually has wisdom or mercy. But since it is established that He is all-wise and all-compassionate, and the falsity of Jahm’s position is realized, this necessitates that we affirm what mercy and wisdom entail – so the position of the Mu’tazilites concerning His wisdom and mercy as well as that or the Qadarites, determinists, and deniers of the divine attributes, are equally false, and the most glaring of their errors is considering hell eternal. That is what their positions imply, while Allah has informed us that the inhabitants of paradise and hell will not die, so they must have some abode, and it is impossible that they should be tormented after entering paradise, so no alternative remains except the abode of happiness. A living being is never without either pleasure or pain, and if pain is excluded, this necessarily implies eternal pleasure.
(Reply:) Having openly said what he has said at the end of the above, this person implies that that Satan, Pharaoh, Haman, and all the unbelievers will end up in eternal bliss and perpetual enjoyment, something that no Muslim, Christian, Jew, polytheist, or even philosopher has ever said. Muslims believe that paradise and hell last forever, while a polytheist holds that there will be no resurrection, and a philosopher will be in a state of pain. So we do not know of anyone who has made the statement this man has, which entails leaving Islam, because of the knowledge afforded by the sheer amount of evidence against it. Glory be to Allah Most High, who says,

“Those who disbelieve in the signs of Allah and in meeting Him, it is they who shall despair of My Mercy” [Quran, 29:23]

and says,

“Whenever it abates, We shall increase for them the blaze” [Quran, 17:97]

Allah’s prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has informed us that Death shall be slaughtered between paradise and hell, which without doubt could only be done to show the people of hell’s despair and their certainty of living forever in torment. Were they to move on to pleasure and enjoyment, it would be a great hope for them, better than death, and they would be without despair. How can anyone who believes in these verses and hadiths say such a thing? What he said about wisdom is ignorance, and what he said about Ash’ari (Allah be well pleased with him) is a deliberate lie against him that we seek refuge in Allah Most High from.
(Objection:) One could hold that souls are cleansed of wickedness by this torment and then become Muslims.
(Reply:) Allah be our refuge! Their becoming Muslims in the hereafter will be of no benefit to them, by unanimous consensus of Muslims, and by the word of Allah Most High,

“Its faith will not benefit any soul that did not believe before” [Quran, 6:158]

(Objection:) What wisdom is there in creating such people?
(Reply:) The wisdom lies in making manifest the divine omnipotence so that believers may contemplate it and reflect upon the immensity of the majesty of Allah Most High, who has the power on the one hand to create the angels, the righteous, the prophets, and the Liegelord of Creation Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace); and the power on the other hand to create Pharaoh, Haman, Abu Jahl, the fiends of jinn and mankind, and Satan, the Chief of Misguidance; and who has the power to create the two final abodes, each pure and unadmixed: one for everlasting happiness, the other for agonizing torment, and yet a third abode, this world, compounded of both. Glory to Him whose omnipotence is such, and whose magnificence is so exalted! Allah Most Glorious is well able to create all people as obedient believers, but He Most Glorious has willed to manifest the thing and its opposite, those who know to know it, and those who are ignorant to be ignorant of it, knowledge being the origin of all felicity and that from which true faith and obedience grow, and ignorance being the origin of all damnation and that from which all unbelief and disobedience grow. I have not seen anything ruinous to the affairs of this world or the next save that it was the result of ignorance, which is truly the most baneful of all things. …Whoever says that heaven or hell perish is an unbeliever.

[(al-Hut, Kamal Yusuf, ed.) al-Rasa’il al-Subkiyya fi radd ‘ala ibn Taymiya wa tilmidhihi ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, 196-208 (documents, letters, and passages by Taqi al-Din al-Subki and others edited and commentated upon by al-Hut). Beirut: ‘Alam al-Kutub; Quoted with translation by Shaykh Nuh Ha Mim Keller in Reliance of the Traveller, pg. 995-1002, w55.3]

Also see: https://taymiyyun.wordpress.com/2013/02/03/ibn-taymiyyas-belief-of-hell-jahannam-being-non-eternal/

Not Much Attention was Given to the Works of ibn Taymiyya and ibn al-Qayyim

Not much attention was given to the works of ibn Taymiyya and ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya:

QUOTE Article –

Changing Views of ibn Taymiyya by Khaled el-Rouayheb

Bio-bibliographical sources provide yet further support for the view that Ibn Taymiyya’s influence in subsequent centuries can easily be exaggerated. The Damascene scholar Najm al-Din al-Ghazzi wrote a biographical dictionary of Sunni scholars and notables who died in the tenth century of the Hijra (1492-1588), a work that incorporates material from biographical dictionaries by the Ottoman scholar Ahmet Taskropuzade (d. 1568), the Aleppine scholar Radi al-Din Ibn al-Hanbali (d. 1563), the Egyptian scholar ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha’rani (d. 1565), and the Damascene scholar Ibn Tulun (d. 1564). Al-Ghazzi’s compilation has been edited and thoroughly indexed by Jibra’il Jabbur. The index of titles mentioned by al-Ghazzi provides for an interesting contrast with the index to a contemporary introduction to Islamic religious history such as Berkey’s The Formation of Islam. Al-Ghazzi’s text does not mention a single work by Ibn Taymiyya or Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya. By contrast, the kalam works of al-Taftazani are mentioned ten times; the semantic rhetorical works of al-Taftazani ten times; the kalam works of al-Jurjani fourteen times; books on logic thirteen times; Ibn ‘Arabi’s works seven times; the Jam’ al-Jawami’ of al-Subki twenty-seven times (mostly along with the commentary of al-Mahalli); the Shifa’ of al-Qadi ‘Iyad ten times; and the Mawahib of al-Qastallani four times.[1]
The more detailed obituaries of scholars in ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti’s well-known chronicle of eighteenth-century Egypt also provides valuable information on the books studied by prominent Egyptian scholars. Again, there are no references to the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, while the theological works of al-Taftazani, al-Sanusi, and al-Laqani appear regularly, as does the Shifa’ of al-Qadi ‘Iyad and the Mawahib of al-Qastallani.[2]
The athbat – ie. works listing the books one had a certificate to teach – by prominent seventeenth – and eighteenth-century scholars in the Hijaz tend to reinforce the impression obtained from biographical entries. The thabat of the Meccan Shafi’i scholar Ahmad al-Nakhli (d. 1717), for example, does not mention any works by Ibn Taymiyya or Ibn al-Qayyim, but mentions the Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-Nasafiyya of al-Taftazani and the Jawharat al-Tawhid of al-Laqani, as well as Ibn ‘Arabi’s Futuhat, al-Mahalli’s commentary on al-Subki’s Jam’ al-Jawami’, al-Shifa’ of al-Qadi ‘Iyad, and al-Mawahib of al-Qastallani.[3] The thabat of the Meccan scholar ‘Abdallah ibn Salim al-Basri (d. 1722) likewise does not mention the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim, while mentioning the theological works of al-Taftazani, al-Jurjani, al-Dawani, and al-Laqani, as well as the Shifa’ of al-Qadi ‘Iyad and the works of Ibn ‘Arabi.[4] Even the thabat of the Damascene Hanbali scholar Abu al-Mawahhib al-Hanbali (d. 1714) does not mention the works of Ibn Taymiyya or Ibn al-Qayyim, while mentioning the theological works of al-Taftazani, al-Sanusi and al-Laqani, as well as the Mawahib of al-Qastallani, the Shifa’ of al-Qadi ‘Iyad, and the works of Ibn ‘Arabi.[5] To be sure, the evidence of the athbat is not conclusive, partly because they sometimes mention works under a general description, such as “all the works that he is certified to teach” or “the books of the jurists of the school, both earlier and later.” It is thus not unlikely that some of the mentioned scholars were acquainted with the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya. Yet, it is striking that Ibn ‘Arabi, whose ideas were supposedly dealt a decisive blow by Ibn Taymiyya, and philosophical theologians such as al-Taftazani and al-Jurjani, whose field was supposedly marginalized by the victory of traditional neo-Hanbalis, appear regularly in these athbat while Ibn Taymiyya does not.
The Ottoman scribe and polymath Katip Celebi, author of the well-known bibliographic compilation Kashf al-zunun ‘an asami al-kutub wa al-funun was obviously much better acquainted with the works of Ibn Taymiyya’s critics than with the works of Ibn Taymiyya himself. For example, he mentioned Ibn Taymiyya’s Minhaj al-sunna, but did not give the incipit, presumably because he had not actually seen a copy of the work. Instead, he quoted Ibn Taymiyya’s critic Taqi al-Din al-Subki to the effect that it was a powerful response to a Shi’i polemical work by Ibn Mukhtar al-Hilli (d. 1326), but also expounded the heretical views that created things need not have a beginning in time, and that non-eternal attributes subsist in God.[6] After mentioning Ibn Taymiyya’s Kitab al-‘arsh, Katip Celebi again did not give an incipit, but quoted the grammarian and Qur’an commentator Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi (d. 1344) as stating that he had seen this work, and that Ibn Taymiyya had written there that God is literally seated on the throne, and had left a place on it for the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to sit next to him.[7] After mentioning Ibn Taymiyya’s work [Iqtida’] al-sirat al-mustaqim, Katip Celebi yet again did not give an incipit, and merely wrote that this was the work in which Ibn Taymiyya, according to Taqi al-Din al-Hisni, expressed the outrageous view that the venerable Companion and transmitter of Hadith Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiallahu ‘anh) was an unbeliever.[8]

[1] – Al-Ghazzi, al-Kawakib al-sa’ira,, 3:314-316. Al-Ghazzi mentions one work by Ibn Taymiyya’s grandfather Majd al-Din ibn Taymiyya (d. 1254) – a handbook on Hanbali law entitled al-Muharrar.
[2] – ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, ‘Aja’ib al-athar fi al-tarajim wa al-khabar (Cairo: al-Matba’a al-‘Amira, 1297AH), 1:309-310, 2:25-26, 2:227-228, 4:185-186.
[3] – Ahmad al-Nakhli, Bughyat al-talibin al-mashayikh al-muhaqqiqin al-mu’tamadin (Hyderabad: Da’irat al-Ma’arif al-‘Uthmaniyya, 1328AH).
[4] – Salim ibn ‘Abdallah al-Basri, al-Imdad bi ma’rifat ‘uluww al-isnad (Hyderabad: Da’irat al-Ma’arif al-‘Uthmaniyya, 1328AH).
[5] – Abu al-Mawahib al-Hanbali, Mashyakha, ed. Muhammad Muti’ Hafiz (Damascus & Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1990).
[6] – Hajji Khalifa, Kashf al-zunun, 2:1872.
[7] – Ibid., 2:1438
[8] – Ibid., 2:1078


Imam al-Munawi on there being No Disagreement on ibn Taymiyya and ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya being Innovators

Imam ‘Abd al-Ra’uf al-Munawi (D. 1031AH) on there being no disagreement that ibn Taymiyya and ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya are innovators and refuting some of their incorrect beliefs:

QUOTE Article –

Changing Views of ibn Taymiyya by Khaled el-Rouayheb

For example, the Egyptian Shafi’i scholar and mystic ‘Abd al-Ra’uf al-Munawi (d. 1622), in his commentary on al-Tirmidhi’s Shama’il, cited ibn Hajar’s condemnation of ibn Taymiyya’s suggestion that the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had let down a part of his turban to mark the spot between his shoulders that God had touched with His hand. Though al-Munawi’s overall assessment of ibn Taymiyya and ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya was anything but positive, he did not believe that this particular proposition of theirs was beyond the pale:

“I say: As to them (ibn Taymiyya and ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya) being reprehinsible innovators, there is no disagreement (amma kawnahuma min al-mubtadi’a fa-musallam). As to this particular claim being based on corporealism, this is not correct. First, because they said that the mentioned seeing was during sleep… Second, because (they also said:) we believe that He has a hand unlike the created being, and hence there is nothing to prevent placing It in a manner that does not resemble the placing of a created being.”[1]

[1] -‘Abd al-Ra’uf al-Munawi, Sharh al-Shama-il (MS British Library; Or. 12522), fol. 148a. The passage is quoted in al-Alusi, Jala al-Aynayn, 569, though al-Alusi left out the first sentence in which al-Munawi agreed that ibn Taymiyya and ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Were innovators (Mubtadi’a). The British Library manuscript from which I have quoted was written in 999/1590-1, 32 years before the death of al-Munawi, and may be an autograph.


For more information on this quote and scans of the above-mentioned quote from Imam al-Munawi, both from the published edition of the book and the manuscript, see the following link to where two modern day followers of ibn Taymiyya have been addressed – one who distorted/tampered the above quote from Imam al-Munawi, and another who claimed that the version of the quote mentioned in the above article has been tampered with – based on his blind following of the first individual:


ibn Hajar al-Haytami on ibn Taymiyya and his Student ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and those who Follow Them

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami (D. 974AH) on ibn Taymiyya and his student ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and those who follow them:

Make sure you do not listen to what is in the books of ibn Taymiyya and his student ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and other such people who have taken their own whim as their God, and who have been led astray by Allah, and whose hearts and ears have been sealed, and whose eyes have been covered by Him. And who will help them if not Allah? How these heretics (mulhidun) have crossed the lines and broken the fences of the Shari’a and the Haqiqa, thinking that they are on the right path, and they are not! Rather they are in the worst of errors, the foulest of qualities, the most odious loss, and the utmost falsity. May Allah forsake the one who follows them, and purify the earth of their likes.”

[ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-fatawa al-Hadithiyya, 110-113]

ibn Taymiyya’s Belief of Hell (Jahannam) Being Non-eternal

From Shaykh Abdur Rahman Sondalaani:

In blatant opposition of Quran, Sunnah and Ijmaa’, Ibn Taymiyyah said in his book:

ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻔﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ

“Ar Raddu ‘ala man qaala bi fanaa’il Jannati wan Naar” (The Refutation of the one who affirms the end of both Heaven and Hell)

Ibn Taymiyyah said:

ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺃﻫـــ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻧﻔﻮﺱﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ، ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ

“But the creation of souls that commit evil in the dunya, then will only be in torment in the Hereafter IS A CONTRADICTION. The contradiction of Divine Wisdom and Mercy is more apparent in this issue than anything else.”

In the same book, he said:

ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﻭﻻ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ -. ﺃﻫــــ ﻭﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻓﻴﺤﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ، ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ – ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻴﻦﺑﺒﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ

“In which case, the argument for the ending of Hellfire is supported by the Quran, the Sunnah, and the statements of the Sahabah; while the affirmers of its eternality have with them no Quran, no Sunnah, and no statements of the Sahabah.”


Please NOTICE how he not only blatantly outright contradicts the Quran, Sunnah and Ijmaa’ on an issue that is ma’loom minad Deeni bid Daroorah (known from the Deen by necessity – i.e. known by every Muslim scholar or layman), he also claims (as usual for all his innovations) that the Quran, the Sunnah, and the statements of the Sahabah AGREE with him, and DISAGREE with the Hellfire existing forever. smh. ARE YOU SERIOUS?? REALLY??

If anyone wants to download it:

Word: http://www.alradnet.com/files.php?force&file=alrad_ala_man_qal_befenaa_683331481.doc

PDF: http://www.alradnet.net/files.php?force&file=alrad_ala_man_qal_befenaa_310676303.pdf

Shaykh Abdur Rahman Sondalaani comments further:

This is the famous Ibn Taymiyyah. He was famous because he was a scholar, fearless, outspoken, wrote a lot of books and even made jihad. HOWEVER, he said a lot of things against Allah, his Rasool SallAllahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, his blessed family, Sahabah, and the scholars of earlier and later times that caused him to be incarcerated repeatedly until he finally died in prison.

Allah will judge him like He will judge us all. But Ibn Taymiyyah has outlived his lifespan through his literature that still contain a lot of his incorrect beliefs (like the one above), and through certain individuals who call themselves “Salafis” that all too often only learn his interpretation of the Deen and try to impose it on the rest of the Ummah as being the correct understanding that the Righteous Predecessors of the Muslims had. That is why I criticise him the way I do. To raise awareness.

At the end of the day, I do not curse him like some do, and I don’t say “may Allah have mercy on him” like many others do. I simply show people the other face of Ibn Taymiyyah so they won’t believe the hype about him being “Shaykhul Islam”.

Shaykh Abdur Rahman Sondalaani continues:

Laymen, as well as scholars, already believe Heaven and Hell are forever. He derived his understanding about there being a difference by

1. Following his intellect, which he constantly accuses the Sunni theologians for relying on instead of the texts.

2. Following the methodology of bypassing the clear-cut (muhkamaat) and relying on the ambiguous (mutashaabihaat). This is the methodology Allah warned us is the way of people who have deviation and perversion in their hearts in the beginning verses of Surah Ali ‘Imraan.

The verses he refers to mention that the people will stay in Hell for as long as the Heavens and Earth remain, except as your Lord wills.

“As long as the Heaven and Earth remain” – is a figure of speech that the Arabs use to mean forever.

The scholars of tafseer disagree about the exception mentioned in the ayat:

“Except as your Lord wills”

Al Imam Ibnul Jawzi Al Hanbali (D. 597AH) RahimahUllah mentioned seven meanings for it in his tafseer of the Quran:

1. The exception is in the right of the monotheists that will exit Hell by the intercession. – Ibn Abbas, Ad Dahhaak
2. It is an exception that Allah will not do. – Ibn Abbaas, Az Zajjaaj
3. They will abide in Hell forever, but Allah will order the Hellfire to consume them until they perish, then He will recreate them. So the exception is mentioned in reference to that state. – Ibn Mas’ud
4. That “except – illaa” here means “besides – siwaa”. Like if you say in Arabic, “If we had someone with us except Zaid” meaning besides Zaid. So the meaning would be “they will dwell in it as long as the Heavens and Earth remain except the eternity and additional time your Lord wills them to stay.” This is the opinion of (the Arabic linguist and explainer of the Quran) Al Farraa. Ibn Qutaibah said, “An example of it in common speech is like saying “I will let you stay in this house for a year except as you will” – meaning except as you will for me to let you stay longer.”
5. When they are resurrected and gathered together, they will be in the conditions of the Day of Resurrection. So the exception applies to the period of time they stand for judgment and reckoning (before entering Hell). – Az Zajjaaj
6. The exception applies to their wailing and crying (mentioned in the ayat before it), except what your Lord wills of other types of torment that has not been mentioned. – Az Zajjaaj
7. That “except – illaa” here means “just as – kamaa” (just as your lord wills). – Ath Tha’labi

End quote from Ibnul Jawzi.

Number six stood out to me because I remember reading a hadeeth that mentioned that after eons of them crying out to Allah to make them not exist, Allah will say to them the verse of the Quran “ikhsa’oo feehaa wa la tukallimoon! Be cursed therein and do not address me” then He will seal their mouths and noses so their breath will not exit but only go back and forth between their chests and heads. That could be the other torment that was not mentioned. The verses would then mean that they will scream and wail in Hell forever except the rest of eternity in which Allah wills for them to suffocate, unable to scream again. MAY ALLAH SAVE US!!

Notice that Ibnul Jawzi did not even mention the possibility of the Hellfire ending in all the quotes he brought. But some scholars did mention some weak narrations attributed to some of the Sahabah that mention the doors of Hellfire swinging and there not being anyone inside, like Al Imam At Tabari in his tafseer. But even those scholars, at the end of the research affirmed that Hellfire would not end, and if those narrations applied to anyone, it would be the believers.

In conclusion, Shaykh Abdur Rahman Sondalaani mentions:

But please note that there are also some places in his books where he mentions that Hellfire will NOT end. A Salafi may try to defend him by mentioning that. But at best, his statements are contradictory on a clear cut issue where that is not allowed. No where did he explicitly say that he was of one opinion and changed his mind for us to know what his final position was. So we are left with his contradictory statements in his book “Fanaa Al Jannah wan Naar” and the statements of his top student Ibnul Qayyim in “Haadil Arwaah” and “Shifaa’ul ‘Aleel” and what their contemporaries have affirmed about them on this issue.

Also see: https://taymiyyun.wordpress.com/2013/02/19/taqi-al-din-al-subki-on-ibn-taymiyyas-belief-of-hell-being-non-eternal/